(RED) RED SHIFT 2
Red shifts are not necessarily Doppler effects. If twodifferent observers at the same or different events in spacetime look at the same photon (and neighbouring photons) as it passes them, they will see different frequencies (which could be cosmological red shifts, gravitational red shifts or Doppler shifts, or a mixture of them all). The parallel transport limitation guarantees that the red shift velocity-observed to velocity-emitted ratio is independent of emission frequency. The brightness of the sun differs, potentially, for each participant.
Example: The cosmological red shift is observed to affect all spectral lines alike, not just the visible spectrum, where "organic" chaff is a window. Satisfactory explanations are really not available. The "tired light" hypothesis doesn't seem to work, the universe is expanding idea continues, the 'big bang' effect (that red shift is effected by standing waves) avoids geodesic motion, in curved spacetime, and in any case can be mathematically shown to work as well using the idea that as light rays propagate wavelengths measured by observers moving with the flow, they increase in direct proportion to the linear expansion of the universe. That is, the ratio of wavelength to expansion factor, remains a constant. That constant is Hubble's law and it relates to the distance-red shift relation.
Hubble decided to give up practicing law and educate himself in astronomy. Eventually he developed irrefutable evidence for the extragalactlc nature of spiral nebulæ, elliptical nebulæ, and irregular nebulæ (that is, galaxies). He systematised the entire subject: distance scales, luminosities, star densities, the peculiar motion of our galaxy, and then quantified "the large-scale homogeneity of the universe, as well as the ideas of the expanding universe. In 1920 (already delayed 3 years by world war) his Ph.D. began to collimate "that spirals are stellar systems at distances to be measured often in millions of light years."
Footnotes regarding a sensational visible example of phase singularity interrupt. It's an oscillating chemical reaction in which colourful red and blue striations are organised in three-dimensional space. That is where phase singularity is a point at which phase is ambiguous and near which phase takes on all values. Winfree refers to the malonic acid (from apple juice) reaction in which sustained oscillation and excitation has capabilities very much like Dictyostelium and nerve membrane. Ordinary reactions show a monotone approach to a stable optical density at each wavelength. But with malonic acid reagent, large irregular excursions of optical density in the ultraviolet continue for half an hour while visible yellow scarcely changes. The perplexity of an unsuspecting expert in electronics can last longer as repair of the Cary spectrophotometer is continued. The reaction itself oscillates from red to blue and back to red, and is accounted for by Winfree using two sets of chemical equation.
Light from approaching objects in spacetime appears shifted towards the blue end of the spectrum. Astronomers generally record receding objects, that is, red shifted.
The Hubble constant fluctuates between fifty and a hundred kilometres per megaparsec, depending on the person making the observations and their calculations. Herman Bondi in a lecture on cosmology declared that "because the essential parameters of the universe were so poorly known, and so likely to be wrong, he proposed to ignore what passed for numerical data."
Hanes, who has recently radically changed the Hubble constant, noted the problem
of reading instrumentation recording red shifts when heat pulses from
passing swallows were similarly recorded.